The Science of criticism, refutation and praising. Here, we get to know from whom to take knowledge and from whom not to take…
view latest posts on Jarh wa Ta’adeel here
Why this science?
To answer this question, we would like to present a Fatwaa of Sheikh Abul-Mundhir As-Shinqeeti which Addresses the issue:
Is this permissible: seeking to expose the evil scholars and Ahlul-Bidai (innovators)?
Question Number: 5498
In the name of Allah the Merciful. May Allah bless our Shuyuukh and truthful Ulema whom we reckon as Mujahideen -and Allah is the reckoner- We have been under fierce attack from those who claim to belong to the Salafi Manhaj but only ideology and not Jihad and there is a Shaykh who holds a doctor degree (PhD) in Shariah who use to attack us too much on the pulpit and accuses us of being Khawaarij and because of his statements many of the brothers were harassed through arrests and imprisonments. This war of words has continued against us for more than 5 years and he was always warning against us and telling people to be alert and avoid our deviant thoughts (ie Jihad) After the success of the Arab revolutions that started from Facebook, some brothers decided to set up a page on Facebook as “Exposure Page”
*** The aim of this page is to publish his tricks and lies to people and especially that he is of the group who called for “democratic jihad” through election and he is hiding under the cloak of Salafiyyah but by Allah, his actions do not match his words .. and to pay back for some of the abuses that we got from him and his group. By Allah, we found out, Praise be to Allah some of those who were with him turned against him and returned to the right path and followed the clear Salafee Manhaj.
Question: Is this work halal and permissible in the Shariah? And is there no problem with it?
Especially that the owner of the page always calls the page Mubaarak (blessed) Is this permissible as well?
May Allah reward you
Questioner: Abu Bakr 87
In the name of Allah the Merciful Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds. May Allah bless our Holy Prophet And his family and companions And after:
Dear brothers, I’ve not been able to see the link mentioned but I would say in general that you may have to defend yourselves from lies that are slandered on you and expose the person who fabricates it and spreads it . And it is also obligatory on you to warn people against those who attribute knowledge to themselves and trade with the religion.
And you have to expose what is in their Manhaj of defects and deviations and their contradiction between words and deeds until people are aware of them and stay away from them.
This is what is required by the duty of advice.
Verily warning against deviations and deviants is not backbiting, but is a necessary means to protect the religion from the risk of those deviations.
The scholars have placed it within the things for which backbiting is allowed.. An-Nawaawi says:
(Al-Gheebah is to say about a person in his absence that which he dislikes and Buht is to be told falsehood in the face and the two are Haraam but backbiting is permissible, for legitimate reasons like:
One: Appeal: it is permissible for the oppressed to appeal to the Sultan, the judge and others who have the authority to order justice and he says so and so did this to me
Two: to seek help in changing evil and return the sinner to truth: He says to the one he is expecting his help: so and so is doing such act, restrain him from it.
Third: seeking Fatwaa: such as saying to the Mufti, a Fulaan cheated me or my father or my brother or my husband or such and such and Does he have the right to do that and how can I free myself off it?, and how do I get justice for myself …
Fourth: Warning Muslims from evil: and that comes in several ways: from it is the Jarh (criticism) of narrators, witnesses and authors and that is unanimously agreed to be permissible and even a duty to safeguard the Shariah.
And from it also is to inform of his defects during a discussion to connect with him.
And from it also is that if you see a person attempting to buy something defective or slave who steals, fornicates, or drinks or things like that, that you inform the buyer if he does not know as an advice, and not with the aim of abuse.
And from it also is If you see a student of knowledge who approaches a Mubtadi’ (innovator) or evil doer and taking knowledge from him and he does not know of his danger it is upon you to explain his condition with the aim of advice….
Five: If he does his evil and corruption openly or does his Bid’ah openly such as the one who drinks alcohol openly or confiscate the peoples’ wealth and collects tolls, he may be spoken about regarding the evils he does in public, but not regarding others except due to other reasons.
Six: Description: If he is known with a title like the lame, the blue, short, blind, and the likes, he may be described as such and it is not allowed to mention him as such to ridicule him and if possible to describe him otherwise, it is better)
[Sharhu An-Nawaawi ala Saheeh Muslim – (16/143)].
On this, An-Naadhim says:
“And defamation is not backbiting in six cases … Complainant, Description, Warning, for the one who does evil openly,and … requesting verdict and seeking help to eradicate evil.”
The evidence that warning does not fall within the framework of backbiting or infringement on the rights is what is narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh:
from Abu Salamah bin Abdul Rahman from Faatimah bint Qays that Abu Amr bin Hafs divorced her totally….she said when I became free, I told him that Muaawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan and Abu Jahm both proposed to me. The Messenger of Allah – peace be upon him- said: Abu Jahm does not put his stick on his shoulder and Muaawiyah, he is a poor man, he has no money. Marry Osama bin Zayd, but I disliked him then he said again «Marry Osama». So, I married him and Allah put so much good in it…”
The evidence from the hadith is that He, may peace be upon him mentioned about Muaawiyah and Abu Jahm their defects but that was for the purpose of warning.
This is why the scholars have written in support of the legality of criticizing narrators and explaining their situation and to explain the condition of the people of innovation and warn against them…
part of their words in this regard:
->>> Al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadi said:
(Ali bin Ahmad Ar-Razaaz told me, Ali bin Mohammed bin Saeed al-Moosuli told us, Abul Wajeeh Saleh bin Musa informed us, Ahmad ibn Hanbal informed us, Affan told us, Yahya bin Saeed told us, he said: I asked Shu’bah, Sufyaan bin Saeed, Sufyan bin Uyaynah, and Malik bin Anas about a man, he does not memorize hadith and is not known for the knowledge of hadith, they all said: «expose his affair»)
[Sharafu Ashaabul-Hadith (1/320)].
->>> Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal: Abu Turab Alnakhshabiy came to my father, and my father started saying:
(So and so is weak and so and so is confident), Abu Ayyub said: ((O Shaykh do not backbite the scholars)) My father turned to him and he said : (Woe! this is advice, this is not backbiting)
[Sharhu ilalu Tirmidhi, by Ibn Rajab – (1/121)]
->>> Mohammed Ibn Bandaar As-Ssubaak Aj-Jarjaani said: I said to Ahmad ibn Hanbal: It is hard for me to say: this one is weak this one is a liar? Ahmad said: ((If you are silent and I keep silent, when will the ignorant know the healthy and the sick?))
[Shar’hu ilalu Tirmidhi by Ibn Rajab – (1/121)].
Hence it is clear that saying the conditions of narrators, even though it might be basically a form of backbiting but for the sake of warning, it is not regarded as backbiting rather, it is a an issue of necessity and required in the Shariah in order to protect the religion and preserve it .. And Shu’ubah bn al-Hajjaj used to say:
(Come up let’s backbite for an hour in the cause of Allah) meaning: let’s talk about Jarh wa Ta’adeel (the Islamic science of criticism and amendment).
I say: In what we have mentioned there is enough to prove the legality of mentioning defects for the sake of warning so, do not hesitate to uncover the people of innovation and misguideance and warn against them.
It remains to point out that it is not allowed to focus on anything apart from the flaws that have to do with the issue that is being warned against, so, it is not allowed to mention other defects that have nothing to do with the subject of the warning.
About that says Abul Waleed Albaaji al-Andalusee:
(It is allowed for the critic to talk about the one being criticized on what makes his ahadith rejected, because of the defence on the hadith. So also is the person of Bid’ah, he is to be mentioned along with his innovation so that people do not get deceived by him as a protection for the Shareeah and a defence for it. And nothing of his personal defects should be mentioned as that is part of backbiting. Sufyaan Athawry said about the innovator, he should be mentioned regarding his innovation and he should not be backbitten with other than that….)
[Muqadimatul Baaji lil Jarh Wa Ta’adeel (1/6)].
And Allah knows best Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.
Answered by a member of the Shariah Committee:
Sheikh Abul-Mundhir As-Shinqeeti
Minbar Tawheed Q&A
view latest posts on Jarh wa Ta’adeel here